De and participants: Cross-sectional temzaepam of regular IDUs targeting periods before and after the policy change. Analysis of prescription data, including time-series analysis. Main outcome measures: Changes in prescriptions and patterns of benzodiazepine use; harms associated with benzodiazepine use. The frequency of the injection of capsules after the restriction appeared similar to that before the policy change.
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A sheet with pictures of all formulations of benzodiazepines was used to assist identification and recall.
Evidence reported here suggests further restrictions are required to limit temazepam capsule injecting and its associated harms. This apparent decrease should be interpreted with temszepam, as it may reflect the shorter time period one month used to measure the behaviour.
Conclusion: Limiting the prescribing of temazepam capsules may have reduced their injection by some IDUs, but additional strategies are needed to reduce the misuse among this group. The frequency of the injection of capsules after the restriction appeared similar to that before the policy change. Half of the IDUs reported buying benzodiazepines on the street before and temzzepam the policy change, with a third reporting the purchase of capsules Box 4.
Their mean ages were Interrogating these concepts through the injects and s of temazepam injectors, I argue that the model of temazdpam subject implicit in harm reduction does temazepam sufficiently for their everyday social practices. About half the Injectign reported they were largely obtaining their benzodiazepines legitimately. Specific strategies aimed at supporting doctors and assisting them to refine their prescribing practices may be required, including improving skills in patient assessment, provision of alternatives to benzodiazepines, and reductions in overall benzodiazepine prescribing.
The most commonly reported problems were prominent scarring or bruising, difficulty finding veins to inject into, and perceived benzodiazepine dependence Box 5. There was no change in the frequency of injection of tablets.
These provide empirical support for the argument to limit the prescription and supply of temazepam capsules in Australia. The first survey, in Juneexamined patterns of benzodiazepine te,azepam before the policy change January to Apriland use in the month after the change May Specific guidelines may be required to assist doctors with assessing need for benzodiazepines.
A commonly reported problem among the December sample was difficulty finding veins to inject into, indicative of vascular damage.
As temazepam capsules have been restricted further, it is important to monitor the injection of tablets and the associated harms. However, frequency of benzodiazepine use was similar when only past-month benzodiazepine users were compared Box 3. Two-thirds of IDUs who injected benzodiazepines reported injection-related problems. Although there was a decrease in the proportion of IDUs reporting easy access to temazepam capsules from doctors, substantial proportions tekazepam access remained easy.
Association of benzodiazepine injection with the prescription of temazepam capsules
The study was conducted in New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria, as these states reported the highest levels of benzodiazepine injection among sentinel groups of IDUs. Inpatient hospital prescribing was not included. However, doctors may need to pay particular attention to the prescribing of rapid-acting formulations, including Hypnodorm flunitrazepam and Xanax alprazolamas these may replace temazepam among IDUs.
The misuse of benzodiazepines among injecting drug users IDUs has been documented in many countries, 1 - 6 and has been associated with serious harms.
Temazepam capsules: what was the problem?
DOI: ijecting Ethics approval Ethics approval was granted by the ethics committees of the contributing research institutions. A third of the December sample reported injecting benzodiazepines in the preceding month.
Transfer functions were applied to the step function to model its shape and long-term properties. Source injecfing benzodiazepines Half of both samples reported obtaining benzodiazepines from doctors by presenting with genuine symptoms Box 4.
Conclusion: Despite embodied awareness of the harms associated with temazepam injection, these people were prepared to sacrifice 'health' for the pleasures they perceived to be afforded by injecting the gel capsules. We found that individuals prescribed PBS temazepam capsules were more likely to report injecting benzodiazepines than individuals who had either not been prescribed PBS temazepam capsules or had been injectung PBS temazepam tablets.
Our study did not show a substantial increase in the injection of tablets after publicly subsidised temazepam capsules were restricted.
We assessed the effect of the policy on a sentinel group of IDUs. The estimated prescription data were calculated from continuous data on all prescriptions dispensed from a validated sample of community-based pharmacies.
Drug-use patterns Patterns and frequency of drug use among the June and December samples were similar. These tablets, in addition to the widely available Valium diazepamwere the most commonly reported tablets injecging in this survey. Frequency of benzodiazepine use Box 3 was higher in the December sample, reflecting the requirement of use in the past month for entry into this sample.
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The gemazepam line indicates the start of the capsule restrictions. DOI: Additionally, benzodiazepine-using IDUs have been found to use healthcare services more than IDUs who do not use benzodiazepines, with benzodiazepine injectors reporting ificantly more GP visits than oral users. Details of time-series analyses are available on request.
Publication types. The transgressive and dangerous nature of the practice added to its pleasure. These include benzodiazepine dependence, increased risk of heroin overdose, increased risky injection behaviour, 127 - 9 and injection-related health problems, including gangrene and, sometimes, limb amputation.
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