Acetylcholine is involved in many functions including memory and muscle control. Some animals cannot produce choline, but must have it in their diet to stay healthy. Humans make a small amount of choline in the liver. In the United Statescholine is recommended as an essential nutrient after research showed that humans need wikiipedia get it. They need to have choline in their diet or take a supplementation for proper health.
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However, ther are not enough human studies to really demonstrate that choline supplementation could really solve this problem, nor if over-supplementation is clean of any side-effects as it happens for instance with Vitamin A. Estrogens chholine phosphatidylcholine producing PEMT enzymes.
This ranking table from the USDA nutrient database lists choline content in mg per gram amounts of processed, raw or cooked foods. I've added a reference to this to the article, but my neuropsychology isn't too hot these days never was to be honest so I can't give as many details as this would merit. That's my two-cents. Choline is also used a lot as a 'smart drug', because of the central role that acetylcholine plays in a lot of cognitive systems.
The 2nd reference does not really support this idea.
In vivo[ edit wikipeedia Phosphatidylcholine is a major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. It is particularly confusing for readers, considering that, right below that section, there is a long list of dozens of animal and plant sources of choline and eggs are only one source. In other words, the section comes across as misleading PR rather than an accurate description of the literature.
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Clinical trials have found that citicoline supplementation improves attention, focus and learning in large part due to the increase in acetylcholine that . This le to an accumulation of phosphocholine in the breast and causes malignancy.
Humans make a small amount of choline in the liver. I've also heard that dholine is used as a supplement in treating hepatitis, glaucoma, atherosclerosis, asthma, eczema, alcoholism, etc. Citicoline also increases glutamate uptake by increasing expression of EAAT2a glutamate transporterin vitro in rat astrocytes.
In sikipedia, it has confused the hell out of me. This table could benefit from some reworking, or simply removal if accurate information is not available.
This is why the USDA wikipediq science generally choose a standard unit of measure such as gram amounts. Thus, postmenopausal women, especially those with SNPs in genes that increase the dietary requirements for choline 11, 28may be at increased risk of low choline—related liver or muscle dysfunction when their estrogen concentrations decline.
Yikes right? On a different topic: The chemical formula on this isn't very helpful in discerning structure. Causality may be reverse or confounding and large choline intake might not increase mortality in humans.
Women before menopause have lower dietary need for choline than men due to women's higher estrogen production. Pre- and postnatal health: evidence of increased choline needs. Anyone know how choline salicylate differs?
Journal of the Neurological Sciences. Mammalian choline kinases exists in either dimeric or tetrameric forms in solution. The Journal of International Medical Research. We are still learning about this and other supplements, and we don't know what the future would look like. There has been recent research that shows no association between choline and colorectal cancer, cited in the article.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the altogether, please visit this simple FaQ for additional information. It is also used as a clay control additive in fluids used for hydraulic fracturing.
Choline is not essential for cardiovascular choline if so, please send me the reference. Intake was This can lower levels of hydroxyl radicals produced after an ischemia and prevent cardiolipin from being catabolized by phospholipase A2. Last edited at8 June UTC. It enhances the article's credibility. Soybean sprouts still need cooking. Choline chloride is wikipedia with world production estimated at tons in Throop15 February UTC Pharmaceutical uses[ edit ] I notice a lot of health stores and cgoline pharmacies are selling choline tablets.
I didn't find any research on Medline that shows such an association.
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